TYPES OF STORAGE PESTS

Types of storage pests

Here you can find out everything about the different types of stored product pests and their occurrence and way of life.

American flour beetle

(Tribolium Confusum)

American flour beetle

Look

  • The American flour beetle reaches a length of 3 to 4 mm.
  • He is auburn with eyes set wide apart.
  • Its antennae are expansive, and the antenna elements enlarge continuously up to the tip of the antenna.
  • The larvae of the flour beetle are whitish to yellow-brown. They are 1 to 5 mm long and have three pairs of legs.

Reproduction

  • The development phase of the American flour beetle is highly temperature-dependent.
  • It is approx—20 days at 35 ° C and up to 45 days at 25 ° C.

Way of life

  • The rice flour beetle larvae moult 7-8 times.
  • The American flour beetle lives up to six months.
  • It can fly, but it rarely passes.
  • The flour beetle reproduces in food and feeds primarily on grain products and flour.

Australian thief beetle

(Pinus Tectus)

Australian thief beetle

Look

  • The Australian thief beetle reaches a length of 2.5 to 4 mm.
  • It has a matt dark brown primary colour.
  • Its hair is golden brown to greyish-white and lies close to the body. The bristle hairs on the wing covers are strung and stick out.

Reproduction

  • The development cycle of the Australian thief beetle takes about 3 to 4 months at a temperature of 20 to 25 ° C.
  • He lives between 2 and 3 years.
  • The females lay up to 1,000 eggs directly in the feeding substrate.
  • The larvae hatch after about 14 days. They are characterised by a pronounced spinning activity and dig into leather, plastic, packaging, paper or cardboard and lay their dolls’ cradles.

Way of life

  • The Australian thief beetle fakes its death as soon as it feels disturbed.
  • The females are nocturnal, shy of light and unable to fly.
  • The Australian thief beetle occurs both in the wild (mainly in bird nests of pigeons, swallows or sparrows) and in stores.
  • Thief beetles feed on animal and vegetable supplies such as spices, tea, dried fruits, malt, yeast, semolina, bird and fish feed.

Bread beetle

(Stegobium Paniceum)

Bread beetle

Look

  • The bread beetle is approx. 2 to 4 mm in size and reddish-brown.
  • It has an oval shape.
  • The bread beetle has a domed pronotum. Its body is finely haired. The elytra (wing covers) have point furrows.

Reproduction

  • The female bread beetle lays up to 100 eggs inside or near food.
  • The development time is 2 to 3 months.
  • The adult insect lives 13 to 65 days.

Way of life

  • The bread beetle frequently occurs in bakery and food businesses and is also the most common storage-damaging beetle in private households.
  • Only the larvae take in food. They are very active and invade everywhere. They live in hard foods such as gingerbread.
  • Adult bread beetles leave the substrate and fly to the light to find partners, after which they lay eggs in new stores.

Pea seed beetle

(Callosobruchus maculatus)

Pea seed beetle

Look

  • The size of the pea seed beetle is approx. 3 mm.
  • The pea seed beetle is reddish-brown. Its wing cover is black and grey with two black dots.
  • The larvae are whitish and have a small head.

Reproduction

  • The larvae of the pea seed beetle hatch after 5 to 20 days.
  • They then pupate over 2 weeks to 6 months. They develop in dried beans.
  • 6 to 7 generations develop within a year.

Way of life

  • The pea seed beetle can be found in flowers in spring.
  • It is fond of wandering and can be found mainly in legumes in fields.
  • The pea seed beetle prefers dried long beans and attacking other legumes, such as dried beans and peas.

Peanut flat beetle

(Oryzaephilus Mercator)

peanut flat beetle

Look

  • The flat peanut beetle is 2.5 to 3 mm in size when fully grown.
  • Its body shape is long and narrow.
  • The flat peanut beetle is relatively flat and reddish-brown.
  • There are six sawtooth-like formations on each side of his pronotum.
  • The flat peanut beetle looks very similar to the flat beetle.

Reproduction

  • The female peanut beetle lays an average of 200 eggs in 28 to 42 days (either singly or in small clusters). The eggs are white, microscopic, and elongated in shape.
  • The entire development cycle takes about 35 days.
  • The adult beetle lives an average of 10 months.
  • In warm years there are up to 7 generations, with longer cycles during the winter months.

Way of life

  • The peanut beetle prefers food sources with high oil content, such as nuts.
  • It penetrates even robust food packaging.

Common bacon beetle

(Dermestes lardarius)

Common bacon beetle

Look

  • The common bacon beetle reaches a length of 6 to 10 mm. Its body is elongated oval and wholly scaled.
  • Its head, pronotum and the posterior part of the wings are black. The wings are hairy grey-yellow in the front half and have three small black spots on each side. The feelers are red.
  • The larvae of the common bacon beetle are brown with a slender body and have numerous long bristles. They shed their skin five times before pupating, mainly in wood.

Reproduction

  • The development cycle of the common bacon beetle is approx. 2 to 3 months at a temperature of 18 ° C to 25 ° C.

Way of life

  • The common bacon beetle feeds on various organic materials, such as textiles, wool, supplies and animal remains.
  • It is mainly found in apartments and warehouses.
  • In nature, the common bacon beetle occurs in bird nests, beehives or the sludge of deciduous trees.

Cereal capuchins

(Rhyzopertha Dominica)

Cereal capuchins

Look

  • The grain capuchin reaches a size of 3 mm when fully grown and has a cylindrical shape.
  • It is dark brown or black.
  • The slightly hairy wings are provided with dense longitudinal rows and recessed coarse points.

Reproduction

  • The cereal capuchin female lays between 300 and 500 eggs individually or in piles in loose grain.
  • The larvae hatch after a few days and dig into damaged grains for further development.
  • After pupation, the beetle eats its way outside.
  • The development cycle is 1 to 2 months, depending on the temperature.

Way of life

  • The cereal capuchin is often found in low-quality cereals with a high percentage of dust and broken grains.
  • Its occurrence favours secondary infestation by other pests or diseases.
  • The cereal capuchin can fly well and thus gets to other places.

Grain beetle

(Oryzaephilus surinamensis)

grain beetle

Look

  • The size of the grain beetle is 2.5 to 3 mm.
  • Three longitudinal ribs can be seen on his chest. The chitin carapace is brown, and there are some longitudinal rows of dots on the wing covers. The top of the wings is covered with tiny hairs.
  • The flat grain beetle has sawtooth-like formations on the thorax.
  • The larvae of the grain beetle are yellow to brown and have a brown head.
  • The flat grain beetle looks very similar to the flat peanut beetle.

Reproduction

  • The development and reproduction of the grain beetle are highly temperature-dependent. Its story takes about 20 days at 35 ° C and about 3 to 4 months at 20 ° C.
  • The flat grain beetle can adapt very well to extreme temperatures.

Way of life

  • The flat grain beetle inhabits grain stores and eats insect larvae that feed on the stores.
  • He also feeds on grains, nuts and other high-carbohydrate products. The grain becomes damp and lumpy as a result of the infestation.
  • The beetles gnaw on the packaging, giving other pests access to the food.
  • The grain beetle lives almost exclusively in warehouses. It can occasionally be found outdoors in compost heaps.

Grain mould beetle

(Alphitobius diapering)

grain mould beetle

Look

  • The grain mould beetle reaches a size of 5 to 6 mm.
  • It is glossy brown to black.
  • On its upper wings, some parallel longitudinal stripes consist of fine rows of dots.
  • The yellow-brown larvae are elongated and up to 15 mm long.

Reproduction

  • The females lay up to 2,500 eggs on the substrate (mainly mouldy food).
  • At temperatures around 30 ° C the development is completed in 5 weeks; at temperatures around 24 ° C, it takes up to 9 weeks.
  • The larvae, which are mature enough to pupate, bury themselves primarily in insulation material and build their pupal cradles there.

Way of life

  • The grain mould beetle is common in bakeries, mills, and poultry and pig stalls.
  • It prefers to attack putrefactive, mouldy supplies and damage bread, flour and other grain products. Its diet also includes carrion.
  • The grain mould beetle has well-developed wings, which it does not use.

Big corn borer

(Prostephanus truncatus)

Big corn borer

Look

  • The body length of the brown-coloured large corn borer is 2.2 to 4.3 mm.
  • The antennas, the last three antenna elements greatly enlarged and together form a separated sensor lobe, have a somewhat reddish colour.
  • The pronotum arches over the head like a hood and is granulated in the shape of teeth on the round front edge.
  • The elytra are heavily dotted and drop steeply at the rear end so that when viewed from above, they appear to have been cut off horizontally.

Reproduction

  • On average, ten eggs are laid on the corn kernel per corn borer female, and the hatched larvae bury themselves inside.
  • The larva spends its development over approx. Four stages until pupation within a corn kernel.
  • The development cycle can be pretty short under optimal conditions (25 days at 340 ° C and 75% relative humidity), leading to several generations per year.

Way of life

  • The grain borer primarily damages stored maise but can also attack other types of grain.
  • Typical is constructing tubular tunnels in the corn kernel with a start and several branching side tunnels.
  • The introduction of the corn borer, which comes from tropical Central America, also takes place via cassava roots and tapioca products and other starchy tubers and fruits.

Cheese mite

Tyrolichus Casei

cheese mite

Look

  • The cheese mite reaches a size of approx. 0.5 mm when fully grown.
  • She has a hairy body.
  • The cheese mite is colourless.
  • Their legs and mouthparts are brown.

Reproduction

  • The development cycle from egg to complete insect takes ten days at average room temperature.
  • The female lays up to 800 eggs during her lifetime, an average of 20 to 30 eggs per day.
  • In the larval stage, the cheese mite only has six legs. After being transformed into a nymph, she is eight-legged like the adult animals.
  • The whole insect lives 60 to 70 days.

Way of life

  • The cheese mite spoils food and causes skin irritation and stomach upset.
  • It feeds on nuts, dried fruits, dry eggs, flour and tobacco. She also loves old cheese.
  • The cheese mite prefers warmth and moisture – it cannot survive in the refrigerator.

Khapra beetle

(Trogoderma granarium)

khapra beetle rains

Look

  • The khapra beetle reaches a size of approx. 3 mm.
  • It has an oval body shape and is brown to black with a light brown pattern on the elytra.
  • The larvae are 6 mm in size and yellowish to a golden brown.

Reproduction

  • The female khapra beetle lays 80 eggs within 1 to 6 days.
  • The larvae hatch in 5 to 7 days.
  • The finished beetle is only one to two weeks old.

Way of life

  • The khapra beetle is considered to be one of the most destructive grains and seed pests.
  • He feeds mainly on wheat or malted barley. But it can also attack rice, peanuts and dried animal hides.

Grain beetle

(Sitophilus Granarius)

Grain beetle

Look

  • The grain beetle is 2 to 3 mm in size.
  • It has oval dimples in the pronotum and is black-brown.
  • The grain beetle cannot fly because its wings have grown together. He also has a trunk.
  • The larva of the grain beetle pupates in grains. It mainly affects wheat and rye, but also other types of grain. She has no legs.

Reproduction

  • The development of the grain beetle takes about 30 days at 30ºC, usually 8 to 16 weeks. It takes place in the grain, which makes it difficult to control the grain weevil.
  • The grain beetle is still viable at 11 ° C.

Way of life

  • The grain beetle is a grain pest.
  • Hatched grain beetles leave a characteristic escape hole in the grain.

Herb thief

(Pinus for)

Herb thief

Look

  • The herb stealer has a length of 2 to 3 mm. He is auburn with yellow hair.
  • The male herb thief has a stretched shape and is light brown. The head and chest are separated from the abdomen. The wing covers are structured with rows of large dots and provided with light, backwards-directed hairs.
  • The herbal thief female is more compact and has darker wing covers on which, as the male, there are light-coloured scales.

Reproduction

  • The development phase of the herb thief takes about 3 to 4 months at a temperature of 20 to 25 ° C.

Way of life

  • The herb thief fakes his death as soon as he feels disturbed.
  • The nocturnal beetle feeds on plant and animal substances, such as stocks of herbs.
  • It occurs both in living spaces and in the great outdoors. In nature, it can often be found in old trees and bird nests.

Corn beetle

(Sitophilus zaemais)

Corn beetle

Look

  • The corn beetle reaches a size of approx. 4 mm when fully grown.
  • It is red-brown to almost black.
  • There are usually four blurry reddish or yellowish spots on his back.

Reproduction

  • The female corn beetle eats a small hole in a grain of cereal, in which it lays an egg. The gap is then closed with a drop of secretion. The female lays around 300 to 400 eggs over several months.
  • After a few days, the larvae hatch and feed on the endosperm of the grain.
  • After completing the larval stage, the larvae pupate and hatch as an imago (complete insect).
  • The entire development cycle takes about 4 to 6 months and takes place in the grain, making it difficult to control the corn beetle.

Way of life

  • The corn beetle has fully developed wings under the wing covers and is fully capable of flight.
  • It destroys stored crops such as wheat, maise and rice.

Flour beetle

(Tenebrio Molitor)

Flour beetle

Look

  • The flour beetle is about 20 mm tall when fully grown.
  • It has a dark brown or shiny black colour.
  • The larvae are 30 mm in size and honey yellow. Its smooth, worm-like body has an armoured, shiny surface.

Propagation

  • Each female meal beetle lays around 275 to 600 eggs individually or in piles in spring. The eggs are white, bean-shaped, and about 1 mm in size.
  • The larvae hatch in 4 to 14 days and are usually fully grown in autumn.
  • Pupation in spring takes 7 to 24 days. The pupae are first white, then yellow and not surrounded by a cocoon.
  • The adult beetle appears in spring or early summer and lives 2 to 3 months.

Way of life

  • The meal beetle is particularly resistant to cold temperatures.
  • It is the starting pest of the post-harvest period and is widespread worldwide.
  • The meal beetle can fly well, is attracted to lamps and lives mainly in hiding places without incidence of light.

Flour mite

Acarus Siro )

Flour mite

Look

  • The flour mite is 0.5 mm in size when fully grown.
  • It is white or pale brown. With her four pairs of legs, she moves slowly.
  • The flour mite larva is 0.5 mm in size, white and six-legged. Two nymph phases are lived through with eight legs.

Reproduction

  • The flour mite needs at least 60% relative humidity to survive.
  • The development of the flour mite takes about 9 to 11 days at 23 ° C and 90% relative humidity.
  • A mass development takes place at high relative humidity and substrate moisture.

Way of life

  • The flour mite typically infects flour stocks stored in moisture and grains, pasta, baked goods, and animal feed. The humidity of the infected supplies must be 14%.
  • The infected supplies look as if they were covered with a light layer of dust. The products taste bitter and are harmful to human and animal health.

Rice beetle

(Sitophilus Oryzae)

Rice beetle

Look

  • The rice beetle reaches a size of 2 to 3 mm.
  • It has round dimples in the pronotum and reddish dots on the elytra (wings). He also has a trunk.
  • The larvae of the rice beetle pupate in grains or other seeds. They don’t have legs.

Reproduction

  • The development of the rice beetle takes about 98 days at 18 ° C. It takes place in the grain, which makes it difficult to control the rice beetle.
  • No development takes place below 16 ° C.
  • The whole insect (imago) lives for several months, up to a year.

Way of life

  • Despite its name, the rice beetle is more common in wheat than rice.
  • In contrast to the grain beetle, it can fly very well.

Red-legged ham beetle

Necrobia Rufipes )

Red-legged ham beetle

Look

  • The red-legged ham beetle reaches a size of 4 to 5 mm when fully grown.
  • Its upper side has a metallic blue-green sheen – the underside of the abdomen is dark blue.
  • The legs have a light reddish-brown or orange colour. The antennae are red-brown and have a dark brown or black club.

Reproduction

  • The female ham beetle lays up to 30 eggs a day in smoked or cured meat products and smoked fish.
  • The eggs hatch after 4 to 6 days.
  • The larvae grow for 30 to 140 days, are less mobile and look for a dark place to pupate. Pupation varies between 6 and 21 days.
  • The entire insect mates shortly after metamorphosis and lives up to 14 months.

Way of life

  • The adult ham beetle can fly and, therefore, quickly finds new sources of food.
  • The larvae and the total insect cause damage while they are infested with hard cheese, smoked sausage, ham, chocolate and dried fruit. The larvae are the most voracious.
  • The red-legged ham beetle also feeds on its eggs and pupae.

Red-brown inguinal flat beetle

Cryptolestes Ferrugineus )

Red-brown inguinal flat beetle

Look

  • The red-brown inguinal flat beetle reaches a length of 2.5 mm. It is light red to reddish-brown.
  • Its flat body with its very long antennae is particularly striking.
  • The larvae are yellowish to white. They are 0.5 mm long and grow to a length of 4 mm.

Reproduction

  • The development phase of the red-brown inguinal flat beetle is strongly temperature-dependent.
  • It lasts approx. 69 to 103 days at a temperature of 21 ° C and approx. Twenty-six days at 38 ° C.

Way of life

  • The red-brown inguinal flat beetle loves warm and humid climates. In high temperatures, he is a good flyer.
  • He lives in the wild under tree bark.
  • The red-brown estuarine flat beetle feeds primarily on grain and pasta, rice, spices, dried fruit, chocolate, nuts and dates. This is why it is particularly feared in warehouses, grocery stores and malls.
  • The red-brown inguinal flat beetle is rare in private households.
  • The lifespan of the red-brown inguinal flat beetle is approx—1 year.

Red-brown rice flour beetle

(Tribolium castoreum)

Red-brown rice flour beetle

Look

  • The reddish-brown rice flour beetle reaches a length of 3 to 4 mm.
  • It is light red to brown and has an elongated, narrow body. Its head and pronotum are slightly darker than the wing covers.
  • The larvae of the flour beetle are similar to caterpillars. They are yellowish and up to 8 mm long. The head capsule is dark.

Reproduction

  • The red-brown rice flour beetle lays between 2 and 18 eggs. The eggs are covered with a sticky secretion to stick to the brood substrate and are challenging to detect. The females lay up to 1,000 eggs in the course of their lives.
  • The ideal reproductive temperature of the flour beetle is 30-35 ° C. The red-brown rice flour beetle does not reproduce at temperatures below 20 ° C.

Way of life

  • The red-brown rice flour beetle can live up to 3 years.
  • He flies at high temperatures.
  • The red-brown rice flour beetle feeds on grains and their products, such as peas, beans, seeds, raisins, cocoa, sunflower seeds, peanuts, etc.
  • It often comes to Europe through food imports and is mainly found in large mills. From here, it goes into retail.

Mould beetle

(Family – Cryptophagidae)

Mould beetle

Look

  • The mould beetle reaches a size of 1.5 to 3.5 mm.
  • It is coloured brown, red-brown or black.
  • The mould beetle has an elongated or cylindrical shape (rarely rounded) and has powerful antennae.
  • The larvae are elongated and have a spindle-shaped shape.

Reproduction

  • The mould beetle’s lifespan is usually over after around 54 days. However, it can extend up to 5 months in a warm ambient temperature.

Way of life

  • The mould beetle occurs in mills and warehouses where moist food can be attacked.
  • There it can transfer mould spores from one storage location to another and spoil food.
  • The infestation of damp gypsum in new buildings is relatively harmless.

Tobacco beetle

(Lasioderma serricorne)

Tobacco beetle

Look

  • The tobacco beetle reaches a size of 2 to 3 mm when fully grown.
  • It is coloured red-brown.
  • The tobacco beetle has a hump-like pronotum and smooth elytra (wings).
  • The larvae are very similar to the bread beetle larvae.

Reproduction

  • The female lays up to 100 eggs inside or near food.
  • The larval stage of the tobacco beetle lasts about 25 days at a 30 to 35 ° C. Development seldom occurs below 17ºC.
  • The adult beetle lives 2 to 6 weeks.

Way of life

  • The tobacco beetle is usually brought in with imported goods from warmer regions. It affects various foods, such as tobacco, tea, grain, legumes, dried fruits and spices.
  • He can use toxic substances such as tea and caffeine as food.
  • Adult tobacco beetles leave the substrate and fly to the light to find partners, after which they lay eggs in new stores.
  • The tobacco beetle is very sensitive to cold.

Quadruple bean beetle

(Bruchus quadrimaculatus)

Quadruple bean beetle

Look

  • When fully grown, the four-spotted bean beetle is approx. 4 mm in size.
  • It has a plump body and shortened wing-coverts.
  • The head ends in a short, wide trunk, with which it absorbs liquid.
  • The four-spotted bean beetle has a chitin shell.

Reproduction

  • The female bean beetle lays its eggs in stored beans or seed pods in the field. A bean can contain up to 24 hatched larvae.
  • The adult larvae pupate in the empty bean pods.
  • The finished beetles break through the shell, mate, lay eggs and start a new generation.
  • Up to 6 generations are possible in one year.

Way of life

  • The four-spotted bean beetle attacks stored or freely growing legumes.
  • He can destroy the plants.
  • The length of development in the legume is temperature-dependent and lasts until the nutrient supply is exhausted.

Four-horned beetle

(Gnatocerus Cornutus)

Four-horned beetle

Look

  • The four-horned beetle grows to between 3.5 and 4.5 mm.
  • The male has two large mandibles (lower jaw) that look like horns.
  • The female resembles that of the American flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) but has smooth wings.
  • The larvae are very similar to those of the genus Tribolium but slightly larger.

Reproduction

  • The optimal development temperature is between 15ºC and 32ºC. It takes about eight weeks at 27ºC.
  • The complete development is not possible below 10ºC.

Way of life

  • The four-horned beetle feeds on flour, dough, semolina and the like.
  • Moth eggs and larvae are also on his menu.